City overview
City Impression
- Land of Abundance
 
Numbers
54---Accounting for 54 ethnic groups of 56 in China
2300---Chengdu has 2300 years history
50---Top 50 in the ranking of comprehensive strength of China's cities
 
Geography and Climate
Chengdu is located between longitude 102°54~104°53 east and latitude 30°05~31°26 north, with an area of 12,300 square meters, among which 36.4% is plain, 30.4% is hill and 33.2% is mountainous area.
 
The subtropical monsoon climate influenced by Sichuan Basin brings the annual average temperature in Chengdu to about 16 C (61 F). Another distinctive feature is humidity with clouds and mist and little sunlight.
 
Chengdu's summer is sultry with low temperature morning and evening, but high after noon. To avoid strong ultraviolet radiation and to stay dry, take a raincoat. The average temperature in winter is about 5 degrees Centigrade. However, due to the clouds and moist weather, it feels very cold.
 
History
The life style of the oldest ancester of Chengdu people can be discovered from the historic relics displayed at Sichuan Museum. The history of the Shu people may be traced back to 3700 years ago with the excavation of ceramic spindles, bone needles near Qingyanggong Taoist Temple, as well as the finding the ancient method of boring and burning and tortoise shells.
 
More than 2,300 years ago, King Kaiming IX of the ancient Shu Kingdom moved his capital to a new place and named it Chengdu because it “became a town in the first year, and the capital in the second”. And the name of the city has not been changed since then.
 
Chengdu was strategically important in politics and military in the history because of its special geographical location and economic position. At the end of West Han Dynasty (A.D8~25), Governor of Shu, Gongsu Shu, claimed himself the king of Shu. After that, at least 6 local separatist regimes were set up at Chengdu.
 
The most famous one is the Shuhan regime established by Liu Bei and succeeded by his son Liu Chan 1,700 years ago. All these regimes chose Chengdu as their capital; then expanded their authority to the whole Sichuan, later to Southwest China, finally attempted the rule of China.
 
It is a wonder in the global history of cities, that the name and location of Chengdu has never been changed, and it has never ever been collapsed. Ancient Chengdu was granted with many beautiful titles during its development. Since Chengdu had advanced brocade-weaving technology in East Han Dynasty (A.D.25~220), the government set up a special institution Jin Guan (Brocade Administration) to administrate the brocade industry. Thus Chengdu got the name "City of Brocade". During the West Han Dynasty (A.D.8), Chengdu, along with Luoyang, Handan, Zilin and Wancheng, were titled as Wu Jun (Five Centres of Market Management) because they were the largest five commercial metropolises in China. When it came to the Five-Dynasty Period, the king of Latter Shu Kingdom (A.D. 933~965) planted plenty of hibiscuses on the city wall. So Chengdu got another name "City of Hibiscus". In Song Dynasty (A.D.960~1279), Chengdu was regarded as the second largest city in the comprehensive economic development in China, only after Yangzhou which ranked the first due to its commercial port and convenient transportation. Chengdu has been highly praised as the Land of Abundance, where "both floods and droughts are well-controlled and famine is unknown", since Li Bin, Governor of Shu of Qin Dynasty, initiated and directed the building-up of the Dujingyan Irrigation System over 2,000 years ago.
2012 China University Ranking
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