City overview
City Impression
- The venue of 16th Asian Games
- National Forest City
- Nationally advanced clean city
- Flower City
 
Numbers
210---More than 210 kinds of wild animals
1982.7---The average annual rainfall is 1982.7 millimeters.
 
Geography and Climate
Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in southern mainland China. The city was formerly known internationally as Canton City or simply Canton, after a French language transliteration of the name of the province in Cantonese. It is a port on the Pearl River, navigable to the South China Sea. As of the 2000 census, the city has a population of 6 million, and a metropolitan population of 12.6 million, making it the most populous city in the province and the fifth most populous in China.
 
Guangdong is a subtropical oceanic climate in most areas. Trans Central Tropic of Cancer, summer long winter, high temperatures and heavy rains The annual average temperature of 22 ° C at all levels are all except Hainan Province The province with the highest average annual temperature. Lingnan nuclear winter, but cold Flow south, there are still a few days Jihan, visitors is advised to prepare sweater. Harcourt Typhoon autumn, the annual April to September for the rainy season, they are advised Along your raincoats or umbrellas. Pearl River Delta region is a "three winter without Snow, often spent four seasons ", particularly in spring and autumn brigade You golden season.
 
History
According to historical records, Chuting was the earliest formation of present Guangzhou. It has been 2,800 years since the Chuting was first used when Chu State of the Zhou Dynasty (11th Century BC - 221BC) sent ministers there to make it submitted to Chu.
 
Legend on the Ram City
There had been successions of famine and crop failure in Chuting during the Zhou Dynasty. One day, five colorful auspicious clouds drifted from the South Sea, conveying five celestial beings on five celestial rams. They blessed people with ears of rice in a sheep's mouth. The five celestial beings left but the five rams stayed in Chuting, continuing to protect local people and prayed for favorable weather and a good harvest. To honor the fairies, people built 'Wuxian Guan', a Taoist temple with their sculptures, accompanied by a stone statue of the rams. Hence, Guangzhou is also known as the 'Ram City' (Yang Cheng) or 'Rice Ears City' (Sui Cheng).
 
The City of Guangzhou
The Qin Dynasty (221BC - 206BC) conquered Lingnan Region and established three shires. Nanhai Shire included most of Guangdong Province with Fanyu, with the present Guangzhou as the capital. The site of the small city is located around Jiucang Xiang of Cangbian Lu in the present Guangzhou. Zhaolun took over Nanhai Shire in the early Han dynasty, which absorbed the surrounding area. Then Nanyue Kingdom was established and expanded into the city.

The city walls of Guangzhou were restored a dozen of times in the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279). Middle, east and west cities were built in succession. The Ming Court (1368-1644) brought the three cities together and called them the Old City, and constructed a new one in the south, through the second expansion project in late Ming.
 
Main Port of the Maritime Silk Road
Guangzhou has always been the political, economic and culture center of South China for more than 2,000 years. In its early years, it was a distribution center of rare tropical products. In the Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD), Fanyu had developed commerce and advanced textile and porcelain industries and foreign exchange with overseas, using Guangzhou as a vital port. During the Tang Dynasty (618-907), Guangzhou has become a world famous trading harbor with countries in the South Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. To strengthen the foreign trade, China's earliest customs was set up in Guangzhou. It grew rapidly and became the largest commercial city and treaty port in China.

Since early 3rd century, Guangzhou has replaced Xuwen (in Zhanjiang City) and Hepu (in Beihai City) ports, ascending the throne as the main port of the Maritime Silk Road which initiated during Qin and Han dynasties until Quanzhou overshadowed it from late Song to Yuan (1279 - 1368). However, it recovered and was the only open port under the policy of isolation in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911).
 
Guangzhou and Lingnan Culture
The word 'Lingnan' comes from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770BC-221BC), generally referring to Guangdong, Guangxi and the north of Vietnam. The nationality here was called Nanyue. In terms of geography, Lingnan Culture can be divided into three cultural branches in the Pearl River Drainage Area, Guangxi and Hainan. Guangzhou is the center of Cantonese culture along the Pearl River and the most outstanding of Lingnan Culture. The Cantonese dialect, Cantonese Opera, Lingnan calligraphy, art schools, architecture, miniascape, Cantonese cuisine, as well as music and handicrafts are all included in its scope.

In terms of the essence, aboriginal culture of Nanyue ethnic group, the ocean and the culture from Central China are major elements of Lingnan Culture. The people of Guangzhou prefer morning tea with dim sum. In addition, Guangzhou is representative of Lingnan architecture. Academy building ancestral temple of Ming and Qing dynasties, Xiguan Dawu (Xiguan Residential House) and Qilou Building (Arcade Building) of late Qing are all typical Lingnan style architecture, built in consideration of the climate and geography in the Lingnan Area.
 
Guangzhou was the seat of the revolutionary movement under Sun Yat-sen in 1911; the Republic of China was proclaimed there. From Guangzhou the Nationalist armies of Chiang Kai-shek marched northward in the 1920s to establish a government in Nanjing. In 1927, Guangzhou was briefly the seat of one of the earliest Communist communes in China. The fall of Guangzhou to the Communist armies in late Oct., 1949, signaled the Communist takeover of all China. Under the Communist government, Guangzhou was developed as an industrial center and a modern port, with a great trade to and from Hong Kong.
2012 China University Ranking
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